Question: Explain any two geographical conditions required for the cultivation of pulses. Name any two important pulses producing states.
Answer: Geographical conditions required for the cultivation of pulses:
- Pulses need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions.
- Temperature is required from 25°C to 30°C.
- Pulses grow well in the areas of 50-75 cm rainfall.
- These can be grown on all types of soil but dry light soil is the best suited.
- Pulses are leguminous crops which help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air. Thus, pulses are mostly grown in rotation with other crops.
Major pulses producing states are: Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Maharashtra Karnataka.
Question: With reference to millets, answer the following questions:
(1) What are the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of millets?
(2) Name any two states which are the leading producers of millets.
- (i) Millets need very low rainfall.
(ii) They need sandy and shallow black soil,
- Rajasthan and Maharashtra are the leading producers of millets.
Question: Name two important beverage crops grown in India. Who introduced these crops to the country? What type of agriculture is followed for their cultivation?
- Tea and coffee are the two important beverage crops grown in India.
- Tea was initially introduced by the British in India. The Arabica variety of coffee initially brought from Yemen is produced in the country.
- Plantation agriculture is followed for their cultivation.
Question: What is agricultural term used for cultivation of fruits and vegetables? Mention its three features with reference to India.
Answer: Horticulture Features:
- India is one of the major producer of fruits and vegetables in the world.
- It is a producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits.
- India produces about 13% of the world’s vegetable.
Question: With reference to fibre crops, answer the following questions:
(1) Name the four fibre crops grown in India.
(2) Name the fibre crop which is known as golden fibre.
Answer: (1) Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India.
Question: With reference to oil seeds, answer the following questions:
(1) Name a kharif oil seed. Also mention the three states which are the leading producers of the crop mentioned by you.
(2) Name any two rabi oil seeds.
- Groundnut. Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Gujarat are the leading producers of groundnuts.
- Linseed and mustard.
Question: Which fibre is known as the ‘golden fibre’? Why is the fibre named by you losing the market?
Answer: Jute. It is losing market because:
(i) High cost of production.
(ii) Cheap substitutes are available.
(iii) Bangladesh giving a tough competition.
Question: What was Comprehensive Land Development Programme?
Answer: Under Comprehensive Land Development programme, institutional and technical reforms were introduced to increase the agricultural production.
Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease, establishment of grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some important steps in this direction.
Question: Mention any three steps which have been taken by the government to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.
Announcement of the minimum support price.
- Opening of regulated markets.
- Announcement of procurement price.
- Encouraging cooperation marketing.
Question: Name any four factors that have distorted the cropping pattern in India.
- High minimum support price.
- High subsidies for various inputs.
- Committed FCI purchases.
- Assured means of irrigation.
Question: Name the state which is the leading producer of.rubber. Give two reasons.
Answer: Kerala leads in the production of rubber because:
- Rubber requires high temperature and heavy rainfall throughout the year.
- It requires cheap labour which is easily available in Kerala.
Question: Write two differences between intensive and extensive farming.
- Production is increased by using higher inputs and new techniques.
- This is done in thickly populated areas, where no additional land is available.
- Production is increased by bringing more and more area under cultivation.
- This is done in thinly populated areas.
Question: With reference to oilseeds, answer the following questions:
(1) Which is the main oilseed produced in India?
(2) Which state is the leading producer of that oilseed?
(3) Name two oilseeds which are grown as rabi as well as kharif crop.
Answer: (1) Groundnut (2) Andhra Pradesh (3) Sesamum and Castor.
Question: What is the importance of rubber for the Indian economy?
- Rubber is an important industrial raw material.
- It is used in automobile industry.
- It is also the major input for the footwear industry.
- India earns foreign exchange by exporting raw rubber and rubber products.
Question: Distinguish between rotation of crops and multiple cropping.
Rotation of crops: Rotation of crops is the process which helps to retain the fertility of the soil. The crops are grown alternatively. For example: Wheat is grown in one season and sugarcane is grown in other.
Multiple cropping: Raising more than one crop on the same field during the same season is known as multiple cropping. For example: Wheat and mustard.
Question: Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.
Answer: Tea is also an important beverage crop introduced in India, along with coffee. The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates. It requires deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter. Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year. Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of tender leaves.
Question: Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.
Answer: Cotton is one of the staple crops of India. Major cotton-producing states are – Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
Question: Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.
Answer: Abolition of zamindari. Consolidation of small holdings. Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood,cyclone, fire and disease. Establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies, Kissan Credit Card and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme,and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest.
Announcement regarding Minimum support prices to ensure farmers did not suffer if the pres crashed due to bumper crops. Subsidy on agricultural inputs and resources such as power and fertilisers.
Question: The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?
Answer: India shall no longer be self-sufficient in its requirements of food grains. Landless labourers will outweigh the ranks of unskilled – unemployed workers in India. More farmers will switch over to cultivation of high value crops.