Question: Define the following terms:
(2) Kharif Crop
(3) Zaid Crop
- Agriculture: The art and science’4 of cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing livestock including animal husbandry and forestry.
- Kharif Crop: The Kharif season starts with the onset of the monsoon, i.e., June-July and continues till the beginning of winter, i.e, October-November.
- Zaid Crop: These are crops which are sown between the rabi and kharif crops. Watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber and vegetables are some examples of the zaid crops.
Question: Mention any three features of slash, and burn agriculture.
- Farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their family.
- When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.
- India has tropical climate with ample sunshine. So, we have a long growing season.
Question: Distinguish between intensive subsistence and primitive subsistence farming.
- This type of farming is practised on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks.
- Land productivity under this type of agriculture remains very low.
- This type of agriculture is practised in North-East states.
- This type of farming is practised with the help of modern tools and modern inputs.
- Land productivity under this type of agriculture is high.
- This type of agriculture is practised in northern plains.
Question: What is commercial farming? Mention its major features.
Answer: Commercial farming is a type of farming under which farmers grow crops to sell in the market. Features:
- Farmers use higher doses of modern inputs, e.g., high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides etc.
- The per hectare productivity is very high.
- Rice, sugarcane, tea, coffee are the major crops which are grown under this.
Question: (1) What is a plantation agriculture?
(2) Mention any four plantation crops produced in India.
(3) Mention any two factors which play an important role in the development of plantations.
- Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming under which a single crop is grown on a large area.
- Tea, coffee, rubber and sugarcane.
- (i) Developed network of transport and communication connecting the plantation areas.
(ii) Developed market.
Question: (1) What are rabi crops’? Give four examples.
Mention growing and harvesting periods of rabi crops.
(2) Mention any two important factors responsible for the success of the rabi crops.
- The crops which are grown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June are known as rabi crop.
Examples: Wheat, Barley, Peas and Gram,
- (i) Availability of precipitation during the winter months due to the western temperate cyclone.
(ii) The success of Green Revolution in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.
Question: With reference to kharif crop, answer the following questions:
(1) When are kharif crops sown?
(2) Name any four states which are the main producers of kharif crops.
(3) Name some kharif crops.
- These are sown with the onset of monsoon.
- (i) Assam
(ii) West Bengal
(iii) Andhra Pradesh
(iv) Tamil Nadu
- Rice, millet, maize, groundnut, jute and cotton.
Question: Give any three features of zaid crops.
- The crops which are grown in between rabi and the kharif crops are known as zaid crops.
- These crops are of short duration.
- Watermelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops are most important examples of zaid crops.
Question: Mention any four features of the primitive subsistence farming.
- Primitive subsistence agriculture is practised on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks with the help of family/community labour.
- This type of farming depends upon the monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions for the crops to be grown.
- Under this, farmers produce for self-consumption.
- Per hectare availability of land is very low.
Question: Mention any three characteristics of the Shifting Agriculture.
- The patch of land is cleared by cutting and burning the trees.
- Farming depends upon monsoons, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of the other environmental conditions.
- Per hectare productivity is very low as farmers do not use manure, fertilisers or other modem inputs.
Question: What is Intensive Subsistence Farming? Mention its two features.
Answer: This type of agriculture is practised in those areas or regions, or countries where the cultivable land is limited and the density of population is very high. Major features of intensive agriculture are:
- Per hectare yield is high.
- Farmers apply modern inputs like fertilisers, pesticides, high yielding varieties of seeds, etc., to obtain high yield.
Question: Name the important millets grown in India. Mention any two features of millets.
- Jowar, bajra and ragi are the three important millets grown in India.
- Millets are also known as coarse growns.
- Most of millets have a very high nutritional value.
Question: Name the two most important food crops of India. Name any states where they are produced.
- The most important food crops of India are rice and wheat.
- Major areas where rice is grown are: Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh.
- Major areas where wheat is grown are: Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.