Question: What technological change helped in improving production of India industry during the 20th century?
Answer: The introduction of Fly shuttle.
Question: Mow the Indian and British manufacturers tried to expand their market?
Answer: They tried to expand their market through advertisements.
Question: What was importance of advertisements in expanding the market during the colonial period?
(i) Advertisements make products appear desirable and necessary,
(ii) These try to shape the minds of people and create new needs.
Question: “When Indian manufacturers advertised, the nationalist message was clear and loud”. What was the message?
Answer: if you care for the nation, then buy products that the Indians produce.
Question: “In the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, the merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside.” Give reasons.
Explain any three major problems faced by the new European merchants in setting up their industries in towns before the Industrial Revolution.
What is meant by proto-industrialization? Why was it successful in the countryside in England in the 17th century?
Throw light on production during the proto-industrialization phase in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries with an example.
Answer: The earlier phase of industrialization in which large scale production was carried out for international market not at factories but in decentralized units.
- Huge demand: The world trade expanded at a very fast rate during the 17th and the 18th centuries. The acquisition of colonies was also responsible for the increase in demand. The town producers failed to produce the required quantity.
- Powerful town producers: (i). The town producers were very powerful, (ii). The producers could not expand the production a will. This was because in the towns, urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful. These were associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people within the trade.
- Monopoly rights: The rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products It was therefore difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns. So they turned to the countryside.
- New economic situation in the countryside: Open fields were disappearing in the countryside and the commons were being enclosed. Cottagers and poor peasants who were earlier depended on common lands became jobless So when merchants came around and offered advances to produce, peasants households eagerly agreed.
Question: Why did the peasants agree to accept advances made by the merchants to produce goods for them in Europe during the 17th and the 18th centuries? Explain three reasons.
How were new merchant groups in Europe able to spread their business in the countryside before the Industrial Revolution? Explain.
Briefly explain the method and system of production in the countryside in England.
- Disappearing open field system: In the countryside, the open field system was prevailing. i.e.. land was free and anyone could use it for production. But as the population increased, the open field system started disappearing. The rich landlords started enclosing the open fields.
- Cottagers and poor peasants: They had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, gathering the firewood, berries, vegetables, hay and straw. Now they had to look for alternative sources of income.
- Small fields i As most of the land was acquired by the rich landlords, the poor had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all the members of the household. So when merchants came around, and offered advances to produce goods for them, peasant households eagerly agreed.
- Full utilization of family labour resources: By working for the merchants, the poor peasants and the artisans could continue to remain in the countryside, and cultivate their small plots
- Income: Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources.